The General name of such materials as sand, gravel, and crushed stone used in the production of concrete is inert materials. Aggregate, which occupies about 60-75% of the total volume in concrete, is an important component.
Inert materials can generally be divided by size into small, fine-grained (sand, crushing sand for example, produced by grinding gravel, crushed stone, etc.) and large (for example, gravel, crushed stone, etc.).
The most important properties of inert materials are
Hardness, strength and integrity
No flimsy components (such as seashell, charcoal, etc.)
Resistance to pressure and abrasion.
Do not contain substances that can damage the consistency of concrete (dust, earth, etc.)
Do not contain flat or long-grained components.
Do not contain materials that can react with cement.
If the inert materials are contaminated (clay, silt, dust), this will negatively affect the adhesion. As well as the content of fine-grained components will increase the potency of the used water.
Before starting the production of concrete, all the inert materials that will be used must pass a number of checks, sieves, and so on,to meet the quality standards. The components to be used in concrete must comply with TS 706 EN 12620.
Not only concrete and cement, but also all inert materials must be manufactured in accordance with the standards.
In the production of concrete, a large part (75 %) is made up of natural materials, such as sand, crushed stone, and sifting. This concrete is considered a high-quality product that meets all the required quality standards.
Many concrete manufacturers are engaged in direct production of inert materials, building materials, creating divisions or companies for the extraction of raw materials directly from the quarries, because it is not always possible to find quality components that meet the standards of the market for the production of high-quality concrete.
The goal is not only to produce concrete that meets the standards, but also to establish parallel production of high-quality building materials, not only cement, but also other components that are added to the concrete mix (additive, etc.), to control the quality process and document it; the Association of manufacturers of ready-made concrete in Turkey stated that all concrete manufacturers in the country must maintain production documentation and thereby control the product they make.
Relying on the standards that must be followed in the production and use of inert materials and solving problems in the sector, the Association of manufacturers of building materials and the Union of manufacturers have taken a number of measures aimed at meeting the standards and quality of the product produced.
Cement is a material that is used in construction for bonding a number of building materials, wall blocks, bricks, blocks, cinder blocks, etc.
Water is necessary so that the cement can acquire the bonding property. Cement is a mixture that hardens by reacting with water. Izvesna ground into a powder, adding clay and iron ore or sand, if necessary. The manufacturing process takes place in furnaces at a temperature of 1400-1500°C. The resulting product is called "clinker".